Front cover: before treatment
Front cover: after treatment
Spine and front cover: before treatment
Front endleaves: before treatment
Spine and front cover: after treatment
Front endleaves: after treatment
Fol.1r: before treatment
Fol.1r: after treatment
Opening characteristic: before treatment
Opening characteristic: after treatment
Spine: before treatment
Spine: during treatment
Spine: during treatment
Spine: during treatment
Spine: during treatment
Treatment Record Documentation
Date of Examination: May, 2018
Title: Concordantiae caritatis
Date: Austria, third quarter of 15th cent.
Owner: Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts Department, Morgan Library & Museum
Call Number: MS M.1045
FuÌˆrstlich Liechtenstein’sche Fideikommiss-Bibliothek (Vienna, Austria); H.P. Kraus and W.H. Schab, New York; The manuscript was given to the Morgan by Clara S. Peck, in 1983 as a gift.
The manuscript is treated for an upcoming loan to J. Paul Getty Museum in May, 2019.
Collation (signatures, format, leaves, pagination, foliation, and inserts):
The book-block is comprised of 264 leaves (not including 4 flyleaves).
Pages are sewn-in bifolios.
Modern foliation in Arabic numerals was written in graphite in the upper right corner.
Binding: The binding of the manuscript is full, brown leather of calf skin sewn on raised cords. The overall appearance of the binding is early 19th-century binding with diced leather, with both blind and gold toolings. The covers have both gold-tooled and blind tooled frames and the center has diced pattern. The spine was divided into five panels by the double raised cords. Each panel has gold tooled frame and blind tooled diced pattern inside. The second panel of the spine from the top has the title tooled in gold, read “CONCORDANTIA CARITATIS”. And the last panel also some gold tooled letters, read “CODEX MANUSCRIPTUS”. The stuck-on endbands are made of a cloth wrapped around a cord. The boards are fairly thick (7mm) and sturdy.
Text-block: The text-block is made of parchment. All the parchments are trimmed and the edges are sprinkled with red and green. The text-block was sewn all-along on 4 double-raised cords and two kettle stitches. On close examination during the treatment, it became apparent that the sewing structure might be original. There are 27 gatherings in total. The spine of the text-block was slightly rounded, and lined with five panels of thin laminated boards. Each endpaper section consists of a sewn-in bifolio of blank paper and two single sheets of marbled paper. One of the marbled papers is adhered as a pastedown, and the other one is fully adhered to its adjacent free endleaves. The front pastedown contains a black and white bookplate from Clara S. Peck’s library.
The manuscript contains both illustration and text. Usually the illustrations are placed on the left and the text in on the right. The text mainly written with black iron gall ink, but red ink also used for the initials and some other cases. Some illustrations are incomplete, the complete ones are colored with several different colors, including green, blue, red, pink, white, black, gold and etc.
There is a bookplate of Clara S. Peck in the center of the front pastedown.
Binding: The binding is in poor condition overall with a detached spine and front board. The front board is fully detached. Although the back board was still attached, the leather joint was broken and it was attaching to the text-block with the deteriorating inner cloth hinge.
Text-block: The text-block is in fair condition overall. The sewing supports are broken along the joints, on the sections which across the spine area are remained. On the recto of fol.1, there is parchment residue stuck along the spine edge, which probably came from the previous endleaf. There is also a small tear at the bottom of the fold.
Aim of the project
It is not possible to reuse the nineteenth-century binding due to the severely degraded condition of the leather as well as the improper structure. After discussions with the curator Roger S. Wieck, it was decided that the nineteenth-century covers and marbled endleaves could be removed and saved for future reference. Therefore, the goal of the treatment is to secure the opening of the textblock and protect the integrity of the manuscript with a new appropriate binding. All of the previous binding components, as well as the marbled endleaves will be preserved off the book and kept in its object file.
1. Remove spine lining material:
- The spine lining materials (grey board and cloth panels) were peeled off carefully and then kept off the book.
- Agarose gel (5%) cut to the size of each spine panel were applied onto the spine for about 5-10 minutes, then the adhesive residue were scraped off.
Note: During the process of adhesive residue removal, it was found that there were two pieces of recycled parchment probably from original binding on spine panel 3 and 4. The parchment panel spine linings were not complete and very abraded.
- After the gel was used to remove the majority of glue residue, 5% of methylcellulose poultice (Talas, A4C) was applied onto the spine to further reduce the residue, especially around the sewing supports.
2. Remove the endleaves section:
- The marbled paper endleaves and the sewing thread that used to attach them (which was not part of the main sewing structure) were removed carefully.
Note: The previous endleaves sections were tipped on to their adjacent pages, and thus there were paper and adhesive residue left along the spine edge.
- The paper residue from the previous endleaves along the spine edge of the fol.1r was scrapped off mechanically with a spatula.
- On the verso of the last folio, there was also some cloth fibre adhered to the spine edge of the page. After the paper residue was removed, the cloth fibre residue was cleaned with 5% of methylcellulose poultice.
3. Reinfoce the original sewing supports:
- The original raised bands were reinforced with linen braids (Martin Pliester 233200), with helical stitches of linen thread to hold them together. The ends of the braids were left long so that they could be laced through the new boards to form a better attachment.
4. Add new endleaves sections:
- A bifolio made from calf parchment (Pergamena, calf, cream color, buffered, 0.4mm) was used for each side of the text-block.
- Two pieces of alum-tawed skin (Cowley, goat), with the height as that of the spine, and the width as the thickness of the spine plus 2’’), was used for the inner joints. The edges, which are next to the text-block, were pared thin. And then the alum-tawed skin was hinged to the parchment bifolio with a strip of Japanese paper (medium weight) and wheat starch paste (Talas, Zen Shofu Japanese Wheat Paste).
- The main sewing holes were pierced through both the parchment and alum-tawed skin joints. And then smaller holes were added at regular intervals between the main sewing stations to allow better attachment of the alum-tawed joint with linen stitches.
- The parchment bifolio together with alum-tawed skin joints were sewn to the text-block.
- Japanese paper hinge was applied to further attach the new endleaf-section to the text-block.
5. Relocate folio 35:
Note: Before treatment, all recto-pages have already been numbered with Arabic numerals in graphite in the upper right corner. However, an error in the previous foliation was discovered during the treatment. The leaf, which has been foliated as 35, was found to be a detached single leaf. There is a notation in the bottom right corner says “miniatures on fol.105v”. Besides, it was also noticed that the stains on the top edges of both fol.35r and fol.105v correspond to each other. After a discussion with the curator, Roger S. Wieck, it was confirmed that “fol. 35” should be relocated to the verso of “fol.105”.
- The residue of stiff glue along the spine edge of fol.35 was removed mechanically with a scalpel.
- A Japanese paper hinge (medium weight) was added to each side of the leaf along the spine edge.
- Fol. 35 was relocated in-between fol.105v and fol. 106r. And the Japanese paper hinges were adhered to their adjacent page with wheat starch paste.
6. Parchment Spine lining:
- A slotted loose parchment (Pergamena, calf, both side buffered, 0.2mm) was added to provide some support for the opening of the textblock.
- The parchment was cut to fit around the raised bands and it was pulled tight to the spine. The flanges of the parchment were adhered to the alum-tawed skin from the new endleaves sections with wheat starch paste.
7. Primary Endbands:
- New endband was sewn with linen thread (3/18 linen thread) over a linen cord core at the head and tail of the spine. The primary wound endband was done with figure of eight movement. It was sewn through the center of each gathering and also through the parchment spine lining.
8. New boards:
- 8-ply, 2-ply and 1-ply cotton boards were laminated together with wheat starch paste. The boards were put under press shortly and let air dry. After the laminated boards were fully dry, they were cut to size.
- The spine edge from the outer face of the board was beveled to provide a smooth entrance path for the support slips; and the spine edge from the inner face of the board was also beveled to accommodate the shoulder of the text-block. The head, tail and for-edge of the board were slightly beveled on the outside with a sanding block.
- The tapes were laced into the new boards through the cuts made with a chisel. And the tapes were cut shorter and adhered to both the inner and outer side channels.
- The endband cords were frayed out and laced into the new boards at an angle through the holes made with a drill. The cords entered the first hole, travel in a channel in the inner face of the board to the second hole, where it exist again and the cords were fray out around the holes.
9. Linen spine lining:
- A slotted linen spine lining was cut to fit around the raised bands. The spine area was adhered to the parchment lining underneath; and the flanges of the linen lining were adhered onto the outside of the boards with wheat starch paste.
10. Line the outer face of the board:
- A piece of 1-ply museum board was adhered to the outer face of the covering boards with wheat starch paste. After it was fully dry, the outer face of the board was sanded with a sanding block to achieve a smooth surface.
- A big piece of Bright Medium Brown Franz Hoffmann calf leather was prepared with the turn-in areas pared thin by using a spokeshave. The new leather covering was applied with wheat starch paste and the raised-bands were tightened up with cords.
- The leather was slit to turn in around the endband lacings. The ends of the slits were punched with a Japanese hole-puncher to prevent the cut tearing further in the future.
- The tabs at head and tail were trimmed down just long enough to wrap around the primary endbands.
- Marked 45 degree angle inside board corners. Before glued down the turn-ins, ‘‘box corners’’ were made and corners tabs were pared.
12. Alum-tawed joints:
- The flanges of the parchment spine lining were adhered to the inner faces of the boards and the alum-tawed joints were mitred and pasted down to the boards.
- The edges of the turn-ins were trimmed straight and an infill of 2-ply mat-board was applied on the inside of each board with wheat starch paste.
- To improve the opacity of the pastedowns, a piece of handmade paper (Barcham Green Georgian Laid) was applied before the parchment was putting down. When the paper was fully dry, a separate piece of parchment (Pergamena, calf, buffered, 0.4mm) was applied on top of the paper with wheat starch paste.
15. Secondary endband sewing:
- The secondary endbands were sewn through the covering skin on the spine and around the primary endbands to connect the two elements.
- The binding was finish with a simple pattern of blind lines by using hot brass tools.
17. Facsimile of the original book plate
- The black and white bookplate from Clara S. Peck’s library on the original pastedown was scanned with the Bookeye® 4 overhead book scanner in B2 vault.
- Scan quality settings: Resolution (Very high Quality, 600 DPI), Color Mode (Color), the scanned image was saved as a TIFF file.
- The image was modified in Photoshop CS 6 and scaled to the original size of the bookplate.
- The image was printed out on Mohawk Fine Paper using a RICOH SP C830DN printer.
- After the facsimile was trimmed to size, the surface was coated with a layer of 5% methylcellulose.
- A note written “Fol. 35 is now located after fol. 105 ” was printed out on a piece of permalife paper and inserted in between fol.34 and fol. 36.